The Business Review, Cambridge

The Business Review Journal

Vol. 27 * Number 2 * December 2019

The Library of Congress, Washington, DC   *   ISSN 1553 - 5827

Online Computer Library Center   *   OCLC: 920449522

National Library of Australia   *   NLA: 55269788

The Cambridge Social Science Citation Index, CSSCI,

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The primary goal of the journal will be to provide opportunities for business related academicians and professionals from various business related fields in a global realm to publish their paper in one source. The Journal will bring together academicians and professionals from all areas related business fields and related fields to interact with members inside and outside their own particular disciplines. The journal will provide opportunities for publishing researcher's paper as well as providing opportunities to view other's work.  All submissions are subject to a double blind peer review process. The journal is a refereed academic journal which  publishes the  scientific research findings in its field with the ISSN 1553-5827 issued by the Library of Congress, Washington, DC.  No Manuscript Will Be Accepted Without the Required Format.  All Manuscripts Should Be Professionally Proofread Before the Submission.  You can use for professional proofreading / editing etc...The journal will meet the quality and integrity requirements of applicable accreditation agencies (AACSB, regional) and journal evaluation organizations to insure our publications provide our authors publication venues that are recognized by their institutions for academic advancement and academically qualified statue.  The journal submission guideline can be seen at: submission guideline

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Independent Accountants' Benefits and Drawbacks of Artificial Intelligence Use

Dr. Michael Ulinski, Pace University Pleasantville, NY

Dr. Roy Girasa, Pace University Pleasantville, NY



The researchers reviewed the best practices of Artificial Intelligence use as applied to the independent accountants' work, including those in public accounting practice and as part of the internal audit function in industry and government. An overview of Artificial Intelligence (AI) is offered and specified as to its current and future use in the service industries. Forensic accounting applications were also considered as significant users of AI technology. Benefits and drawbacks of AI were examined and conclusions and recommendations were drawn from our exploratory analysis.  Artificial Intelligence has always been a great element in science fiction, involving machines a lot smarter than human beings. Accountants will also benefit from this cutting-edge technology. It is already being deployed on multiple fronts in the industry, and AI technologies are being used every day, from chatbots to search engine algorithms. (1) The technology is transforming routine tasks that take up much of accountants' time and also provide an efficiency and effectiveness that sampling and other risk based procedures that can't be matched by AI applications. Applicable phases of the work done by Independent Accountants for AI applications were reviewed by the researchers, including Public Accountants, private or Internal Auditors and Forensic Accountants, having distinct benefits but some drawbacks to its use. Software applications and data base management improved by AI use along with risk reduction inherent in sampling used in many voluminous data bases seems to be the best practices noted by the researchers.  AI developers aim to make machines process information like humans. This way, computers can work and react similarly to humans. At best they could think creatively, independently and ultimately with better judgment than people. However, a big difference between human beings and machines “intelligence” is the massive scale and speed machines can process. Machines can consume vast amounts of information to identify patterns and help make informed decisions. (2)  Positioning AI as a natural evolutionary outgrowth of analytics, thus benefitting from already established analytics capabilities, provides the best and easiest path for most companies to successfully embark upon AI.


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Turkish Banking Sector Capital Adequacy Interactions in The Process of Basel

Regulations and Real Economic Growth

Dr. Sahap Kavcıoglu, (Şahap Kavcıoğlu), Marmara University, Istanbul, Turkey



Banks aims to be able to carry out its activities with an effective capital management both in compliance with the legal regulations and with the ability to compete effectively. Therefore, minimum capital adequacy standards and compliance with these standards are of vital importance for the banking sector. Standards and guidelines, the Basel Committee has set, also has indirect effects on the growth trends in emerging countries such as Turkey, and this situation unveiled the need for an analysis of Turkey’s economics and the effects on the Turkey’s banking sector.  In this study, how the Turkish banking sector was shaped in the light of Basel principles starting from the financial crisis period in Turkey in 2001, is discussed.  In addition, Turkey's impact on the growth rate of loans in the 2000s, wrapped in a weighted structure of the Turkish bank's balance sheet composition, is evaluated. As a result of the study, it has been observed that the activities of ICAAP (Internal Capital Adequacy Assessment Process), which have been carried out in accordance with the Basel directives since 2013 with a target capital adequacy ratio determined by the BRSA, contributed to the strong capital structure of the Turkish banking sector and that this situation indirectly and positively contributed to the national economy.  The banking sector, which is one of the most important actors in the world of finance, did not have a common evaluation and surveillance system until 1974. Although there are local regulations and country-specific set of rules, the fact that a financial problem in a globalized world in a country has a high risk of transmission to other countries through banking positions has led to the search for international standards for the banking sector. Moreover, the financial crises, stability and global development have revealed that one of the main priorities of the banking sector and the level of trust in this sector is that; it was inevitable that the regulation differences between the countries would be eliminated and the sector would be able to compare with the numerical data, and eventually in 1974 the Basel Committee had emerged.


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 Exponential Growth Strategies in the Modern Business Landscape:

 How WhatsApp Achieved Market Share Domination

Dr. Nadeem M. Firoz, Baruch College, CUNY, New York, NY

Atif Noor, Founder & CEO,, Baruch College, CUNY, New York, NY



The objective of this proposal is to extract valuable insights from WhatsApp’s business model and growth strategy (which can be applied to a variety of organizations in multiple industries) in order to achieve exponential growth. Utilizing the tactics extracted from WhatsApp’s marketing mix, companies may exploit the opportunities available in the increasingly expansive IOT (Internet of Things) economy by thinking globally and digitally and adapting their core business architecture to ride the trends of this new landscape before it’s too late. This proposal will follow WhatsApp from its inception as a startup in Mountain View California to becoming the most popular messaging app in the world after being acquired by Facebook. Its features will be dissected and its value to the marketplace will be closely analyzed. The demographics, geodemographics and user segmentation of the service will be ascertained; along with its business models, marketing positioning, and SWOT analysis. Through careful consideration of each observation, clear tactics for growth will be illuminated and ways to apply them to an organization will be self-evident.  WhatsApp is a cross-platform messaging and Voice over IP (VOIP) service that allows users to send text messages and video calls, along with other rich media such as audio, images, documents, and even video calls. ( The service was created by WhatsApp Inc. in Mountain View, California by founders Brian Acton and Jan Koum, who previously worked for Yahoo! ( After leaving Yahoo! in 2007, they applied to jobs at Facebook, but failed to get hired. Ironically, after the they were rejected jobs at Facebook, their company was acquired by Facebook in February 2014 for close to $19.3 billion dollars ( By early 2018, the product had accumulated over 1.5 billion users, making it the most popular messaging app in the market. ( According to the company, “More than 1 billion people in over 180 countries use WhatsApp to stay in touch with friends and family, anytime and anywhere. WhatsApp is free and offers simple, secure, reliable messaging and calling, available on phones all over the world.” ( The app was named WhatsApp because it sounded like “What’s up?” and had a viral component to it.


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Exploring the Key Competencies of Nurses that Matter for Hospital Human

Resource Management in Taiwan

Tsai­Lin Huang, Dept. of Resources Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan

Director of Personnel, Human Resources Dept. of Chi­Mei Medical Center, Taiwan

Lecturer, Chia Nan University of Pharmacy and Science Dept., Hospital and Health Care Adm. Taiwan

Dr. Jung­Hua Wu, Professor, National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan

Tsair­Wei Chien, Researcher, Research Dept. of Chi­Mei Medical Center, Taiwan

Chia Nan University of Pharmacy and Science Department, Hospital and Health Care Adm. Taiwan



A competent nursing workforce is essential for a successful healthcare system. This study investigated the relationship between competencies and nurses’ job performance in hospitals. We used a comprehensive assessment system together with statistical methods to evaluate 1,855 nurses from three kinds of accredited hospitals in a private medical group in Taiwan. The results of the study showed that nurses’ competencies of customer relationship, empathy, and team cohesion are significantly higher than the average of the medical industry. Although they do not significantly affect job performance, those competencies belong to the basic abilities of nurses. On the other hand, the competencies of achievement, executive ability, and communication have a significant direct positive impact on job performance. Moreover, achievement had a significant direct positive impact on mental health and an indirect positive impact on job performance as a mediator variable. In conclusion, the strengthening of specific competencies associated with hospital policy for healthcare workers is worthwhile and beneficial for hospital human resources management and patients. These findings are valuable for recruitment, allocation, and training in hospital human resource management.  The hospital belongs to the service industry, its human resource cost is the most important expenditure of the hospital, accounting for more than 40% of the hospital cost. It is the key issue how to effectively control the labor cost and maximize the utility of human resources on hospital performance management. The shortage of nurses in the healthcare industry is a significant global problem (Oulton, 2006). The allocation of working nurses directly and significantly affects patient safety and care quality (Dembe et al., 2009; Su et al., 2010) and is closely related to patient treatment outcomes (Carayon and Gürses, 2005; Hugonnet et al., 2007; Stone et al., 2007). The nursing shortage can have a negative impact on medical quality and organizational efficiency (Dunton et al., 2004; Rafferty et al., 2007; Theisen and Sandau, 2013). Thus, sufficient and efficient employees are important goals for the healthcare industry (Lin et al., 2013).


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China’s Status in Global Developments and New Economic Power Centers

Dr. Isın Celebi, Altınbas University, Istanbul, Turkey



In recent years, the wave of protectionism and nationalism has become widespread especially in developed countries causing serious arguments in economic, social, and cultural structures, the closing of borders, and intensifying of competition in economic life.  Similar circumstances led to the 1929 Great Depression.  While these developments and resolutions have been taking place in the USA and the EU, new economic power centers are emerging in the world.  These economic problems, protectionism, and introversion processes are also leading to new strructures.  In the last 20 years, due to significant foreign capital inflows to the region, these countries have become the first to export technology, especially China.  The United States' statements on new sanctions against Iran in November 4-5, 2018 were very important indicators for the increase in the world's hardening.  The trade war between the US and China in 2019 and the resulting walls and that have been built have led to a slowdown in the growth of the Chinese economy and an economic revival in the USA.  Similar topics are likely to be on the agenda in economic, political, and social relations after 2019.  Protectionism, introversion, and nationalism are rising worldwide. In the past, those movements had led to the 1929 Great Depression and to the Second World War. As new powers rise, new but obsolete insight stands out. The USA is becoming sharper and sharper.  Only the USA economy and the interests of the USA community are of key importance for the current administration. China is being considered as a competitor in foreign trade. The Belt and Road Project developed by China and going through 65 countries is very significant. This is a project that integrates the Far East and the Western World. It aims at providing economic, social and cultural integration in order to ensure the reconciliation of civilizations. In the EU, as rational and global policies weaken, a radical right-wing party, the third party in Germany, the Nationalist Party, the second major party in France, the radical right in Sweden have all won the recent elections.


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Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of the material protected by this copyright notice may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, including photocopying and recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without the written permission of the journal.  You are hereby notified that any disclosure, copying, distribution or use of any information (text; pictures; tables. etc..) from this web site or any other linked web pages is strictly prohibited. Request permission / Purchase this article:

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Index: The Library of Congress, Washington, DC:    ISSN: 1540 – 7780

Index: Online Computer Library Center, OH:   OCLC: 805078765 

Index: National Library of Australia: NLA: 42709473

Index: Cambridge Social Science Citation Index, CSSCI.

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