The Business Review, Cambridge

The Business Review Journal

Vol. 27 * Number 1 * Summer 2019

The Library of Congress, Washington, DC   *   ISSN 1553 - 5827

Online Computer Library Center   *   OCLC: 920449522

National Library of Australia   *   NLA: 55269788

The Cambridge Social Science Citation Index, CSSCI,

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The primary goal of the journal will be to provide opportunities for business related academicians and professionals from various business related fields in a global realm to publish their paper in one source. The Journal will bring together academicians and professionals from all areas related business fields and related fields to interact with members inside and outside their own particular disciplines. The journal will provide opportunities for publishing researcher's paper as well as providing opportunities to view other's work.  All submissions are subject to a double blind peer review process. The journal is a refereed academic journal which  publishes the  scientific research findings in its field with the ISSN 1553-5827 issued by the Library of Congress, Washington, DC.  No Manuscript Will Be Accepted Without the Required Format.  All Manuscripts Should Be Professionally Proofread Before the Submission.  You can use for professional proofreading / editing etc...The journal will meet the quality and integrity requirements of applicable accreditation agencies (AACSB, regional) and journal evaluation organizations to insure our publications provide our authors publication venues that are recognized by their institutions for academic advancement and academically qualified statue.  The journal submission guideline can be seen at: submission guideline

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Understanding Consumer Perception and Behavior of Smartphone Application

Dr. Nasim Z. Hosein, Northwood University, Midland, Michigan



Protecting individual’s security threats is a multidimensional problem involving human and technological factors. Although multiple security applications (apps) are offered by third-party developers for free, only a small portion of smart device users have adopted these apps.  This study investigates how smartphone users’ security-related decisions are influenced by their attitudes, perceptions, and understanding of various security threats. This research seeks to provide quantified insights into smartphone users’ behavior toward multiple key personal security features including calling a tow truck, calling for a secure ride, identifying personal features and smartphone alarm services. This research also provides evidence that making correct security decisions might not necessarily relate with individuals’ awareness of the significances of security threats. On the basis of our findings and the results presented in the paper are the factors that might influence smartphone users’ security behaviors as well as what they perceive to be needed security features.  Cell phones have improved the communication among people over the past decade. The number of cell phone users is increasing dramatically which is also expected to continue increasing in the future. Smartphones don’t just contain e-mail functionality rather they are powerful computers that can handle multiple functions. With broad and rapid acceptance, smart devices such as smartphones and tablet computers are playing an increasingly important role in the user's daily life. A potential information and personal security issues have received some but not a great deal of attention from practitioners and academics. This research outlines the market research for a security application Last Call, the methodology, descriptive analysis, data analysis of hypothesis testing, limitations, and a detailed conclusion. The approach that was taken for our survey was simple random sampling for individuals with smartphones. The data was collected over a period of four weeks from October and November 2017. The sample portion of who was observed was chosen at random ranging from young adults to older adults, both students and nonstudents, parents and individuals with businesses. The surveys were distributed throughout several locations consisting of but not limited to towns and cities in and around Northern Michigan.  Technology is constantly changing and improving, as technology gets more advanced and widespread, the demand for security apps have also risen over the years. Security apps are software applications made to be installed on the hardware, be it mobile phones, tablets or computers. These apps come in many different kinds, each with its own function and use. 


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The Impact of Auditor Tenure on Audit Quality, Audit Fees, and Non-audit fees: Is Auditor Loyalty Paying Off After SOX?

Dr. David Adu-Boateng, Purdue University Global, Fort Lauderdale, FL



This paper examines the impact of audit firm tenure on audit quality, audit fees, and non-audit fees. The length of time an audit firm spends to audit a public company is significant in predicting the quality of audit work and the benefits that accrue to the client from advisory and oversight work by the external auditor. Generally, auditors need sufficient time to be familiar with their clients’ businesses, which is needed to enhance effective controls, streamline operations, ensure quality financial reporting, and reward the audit client’s loyalty with reduced cost of assignments. However, researchers debate over the need to rotate audit firms in order to improve auditor independence. Others argue that long tenure may diminish auditor independence, and in turn reduce audit quality. This study employs a multivariate regression to analyze 7,701 public companies, and finds that public firms stand to benefit from long audit firm tenure. The results indicate a positive association between audit firm tenure and the disclosure of material internal control weaknesses. The unexpected association indicates that auditors may be useful in maintaining effective internal controls (reduced disclosure) and also in discovering and reporting material control weaknesses (increased disclosure). Further, increased familiarity with the client’s business coupled with the client’s loyalty play a significant role in reducing audit and non-audit fees over time.  This study explores the impact of audit firm tenure on audit quality, audit fees, and non-audit fees. An audit firm’s knowledge of a client’s business operations, acquired over time, is expected to lead to quality audits and improved financial reporting. Audit firm clients retain auditors for various reasons, including the benefits of quality audits (Blay, Geiger, & North, 2011). A client builds a relationship with the audit firm and expects to reap benefits from the long-term relationship. There is evidence that long audit tenure contributes to a decrease in the disclosure of internal control weaknesses by the audit client (Arel, Brody, & Pany, 2005; Beasley, 1996). Further, audit firms expect to reduce their audit costs as they stay longer with a client and gain comprehensive knowledge of the client’s business and the business environment. The net effect is increased audit efficiency and effectiveness. The concept of quasi rent supports this view. The auditor expects to reap benefits (quasi rent) from the invested efforts over time.  Therefore, it is expected that firms will benefit from retaining auditors and improve audit quality (Geiger & Raghunandan, 2002). This paper uses the Disclosure of Internal Control Weaknesses as a proxy for audit quality (Luo & Thorton, 2013).


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Analysis of Regional Composition of Tourism Cluster in Portugal

Antonia Tavares do Canto, University of the Azores, Portugal

Dr. Joao Pedro Couto, University of the Azores, Portugal



Tourism is an expanding economic activity both globally and particularly in Portugal. In this work, we examine differences in tourism development among Portuguese regions. The results indicate that different levels of development exist in terms of the importance of tourism to the local economy, the dynamics and evolution of tourism, the efficiency levels of business activities, and the sustainability of tourism development. This article contributes to the existing literature by proposing and testing a framework to analyze the tourism cluster in Portugal in terms of importance, dynamics, efficiency, and sustainability.  Considering the benefits of clusters, numerous companies in Europe, including in Portugal, have created plans for increasing cooperation to develop and enhance their competences (Santos, 2007). Because of globalization and inherent competitiveness, the intention of these institutions is to internationalize their products and services. For this purpose, it is necessary for organizations to replace traditional economic growth models in the form of clusters to enable the development of scale and promote innovation (Costa, 2005). Although Portugal is considered an excellent tourist destination owing to its mild climate, cultural and gastronomic diversity, competent services, and skilled labor, the development of collaborative strategies is fundamental to increasing competitiveness, and studies on clusters are scarce (Estevão & Ferreira, 2012). Thus, the purpose of this study is to evaluate the importance, dynamics, efficiency, and sustainability of the tourism cluster in Portugal. In light of the significance of the tourism sector in the national economy, the goal is to test four hypotheses. The first hypothesis analyzes the relative importance of tourism in different regions in Portugal; the second hypothesis investigates the differences in terms of the dynamics and evolution of tourism in these regions; the third hypothesis evaluates whether the performance of the tourism cluster is similar in different regions; and finally, the fourth hypothesis analyzes the sustainability of Portuguese tourism development. A cluster analysis was used to classify the regions in terms of the dimensions studied to assess the importance, dynamics, efficiency, and sustainability of the tourism cluster.  The present study is divided into five sections. The first section presents a literature review of the cluster concept and the tourism cluster, with a focus on the Portuguese context. The second section presents the analysis model and the hypotheses to be tested. In the third section, the procedures, techniques, and variables used to evaluate the hypotheses are described. The fourth section describes the results.


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The Influence of Accessibility and Attractiveness Factors on the Development of the Azores Tourism Cluster

Antonia Canto, School of Business and Economics, University of the Azores, Portugal

Dr. Joao Couto, School of Business and Economics, University of the Azores, Portugal



Tourism is a growing activity around the world and has been discussed in a number of studies in different areas, including economics and management. Due to its growing importance in Portugal, particularly in the Azores, it has become a subject of interest for regional development. This study analyzes the configuration of the cluster of tourism in the Azores and determines the influence of accessibility and attractiveness on its development. For this purpose, we grouped the Azores islands according to their importance, dynamics, and efficiency of tourism cluster, and tested the influence of the accessibility and attractiveness factors. The results show that accessibility influences the dynamics of the tourism cluster, namely, the existence of direct links to the United States of America, but it also influences the number of inter-island air connections and the availability of maritime transportation for tourists. Attractiveness influences the efficiency of the tourism cluster, namely, occupancy rate and revenue per available room (RevPAR). This study contributes to a better understanding of the factors that affect the development of the tourism cluster in the Azores and their influence on the different islands. The tourism cluster comprises the competitiveness and economic progress of a certain geographical region, along with the social and cultural dynamics, and the quality of life of tourists and inhabitants (Cunha & Cunha, 2005). This translates into a cluster of companies and institutions, correlated with each other by the tourist product (Martins, Fiates & Pinto 2016). Some of the benefits associated with tourism clusters are more efficient and effective organization of tours as transport costs are minimized and the possibility of sharing infrastructure and advertising campaigns. Therefore, these clusters allow cooperation between enterprises in order to obtain a differentiated tourist product. Over the past few decades, tourism has become an important economic activity, as the impact of its direct, indirect, and induced effects have been significant (Truong & Shimizu, 2017). This sector drives the development and economic growth of the entire country, since it makes a positive contribution to production, employment, and the balance of services. To better understand the relationship between agents in the tourism sector and their organization, the purpose of this study is to evaluate the importance, the dynamics, and the efficiency of the tourism cluster in the Azores.


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Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of the material protected by this copyright notice may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, including photocopying and recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without the written permission of the journal.  You are hereby notified that any disclosure, copying, distribution or use of any information (text; pictures; tables. etc..) from this web site or any other linked web pages is strictly prohibited. Request permission / Purchase this article:

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Index: The Library of Congress, Washington, DC:    ISSN: 1540 – 7780

Index: Online Computer Library Center, OH:   OCLC: 805078765 

Index: National Library of Australia: NLA: 42709473

Index: Cambridge Social Science Citation Index, CSSCI.

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